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maanantai 22. toukokuuta 2017

Romania, Cool Facts #180

<= 179. Cyprus                                                                                                                   181. Italy =>



1. United Romania in 1600

In 1600 the principalities of Wallachia, Moldavia and Transylvania were ruled simultaneously by the Wallachian Prince Michael the Brave. This is considered as the precursor of modern Romanian state.

Principalities of united Romania: 

Wallachia: established in 1330
Moldavia: established in 1346
Transylvania: established in 1570


Moldavia, Transylvania and Wallachia in 1600
Michael the Brave


2. Romania's independence in 1878

Personal Union 
In 1821 there were uprisings in Wallachia against the Ottoman Empire, the same year as Greece started its war of independence.
In 1848 there were uprisings in Wallachia and Moldavia during the Revolutions of 1848, when revolutions took place all over Europe.
In 1859 Moldavia and Wallachia entered a personal union under the suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire.

Independence
Romania fought on Russia's side in the Russo-Turkish War in 1877-1878. After the war Romania's independence from the Ottoman Empire was recognized. The Russo-Turkish War also known as the Romanian War of Independence.

Balkan independence from Ottoman Empire 

1829 Greece
1878 Bulgaria
1878 Montenegro
1878 Serbia
1878 Romania
1912 Albania

Romanian War of Independence or Russo-Turkish War in 1877-1878

3. Monarchs of Romania 

House of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen
In 1866 Prince Carol I of Romania of the House of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen replaced Alexandru Ioan Cuza after a coup. The Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen dynasty was from southwestern Germany. Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen was a small sovereign state from 1547 until 1850, when it was annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia.

Kingdom of Romania 1881-1947
In 1881 Romania became a kingdom. Romania had four kings, before the kingdom was abolished in 1947, when the country was declared a people's republic. The royal family had to exile from Romania.

Return from exile
The former king Michael I got an enthusiastic reception in the streets of Bucharest, when he returned to Romania after the Revolution of 1989. Currently the royal house is very popular, although Romania remains a republic.







4. Greater Romania 

Term
Greater Romania as a term usually refers to the borders of the Kingdom of Romania in the interwar period between 1918 and 1940.

Pan-Romanian goal
In 1918 Romanian state reached its largest peacetime geographical extent ever with an area of 295,049 square kilometers. This happened after the incorporation of Transylvania, Bukovina and Bessarabia.

Interwar Romania
- In 1937 Romania was Europe's second largest and the world's seventh largest oil producer
- Romania was also second largest food producer in Europe at the time
- Early 1930s were marked by social unrest, high employment and strikes
- Throughout the 1930s there were 25 separate governments

End of Greater Romania
After World War II Romania lost Southern Dobruja to Bulgaria and Bessarabia was annexed by Soviet Union. However Romania regained Northern Transylvania from Hungary.


Similar concepts in other countries: 
Greek Megali Idea
Greater Hungary
Greater Bulgaria
Greater Serbia
Greater Albania

Romanian territory changes on a map



- Other names are Palace of the Parliament, People's House, House of the Republic 
- Romanian name Palatului Parlamentului - Second-largest administrative building in the world after the Pentagon 
- Height 84m, area 365,000 m2
- 4th biggest building in the world 
- Heaviest building in the world with a weight of around 4,098,500,000 kg 
- About 70% of the building is empty 
- The building is valued at 3,4 billion US dollars (2008) 
- The cost of heating and electric lighting exceeds 6 million US dollars per year, which is as much as a medium-sized city 


Inside the Palace of Parliament
Outside the Palace of the Parliament


Timeline

168BC Dacian Kingdom was established
106 Half of the Dacian Kingdom became a Roman province of Dacia Felix
271 Roman troops pulled out of Dacia and the next centuries Dacia was conquered by Goths, Huns, Avars and Slavs
1200s Mongols arrived to the area and after they withdrew the region came under Hungarian sphere of influence
1330 Principality of Wallachia was established
1346 Principality of Moldavia was established
1541 By this year almost the entire Balkan peninsula and most of Hungary, Moldavia, Wallachia and Transylvania were under Ottoman rule
1570 Principality of Transylvania was established
1600 The principalities of Wallachia, Moldavia and Transylvania were ruled simultaneously by the Wallachian prince Michael the Brave
1821 Wallachian uprising against the Ottoman Empire
1848 Revolutions in Wallachia and Moldavia
1859 Moldavia and Wallachia entered a personal union under the suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire
1866 After a coup Alexandru Ioan Cuza was replaced by Prince Carol I of Romania of the House of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen
1877-1878 Romania fought on Russia's side in the Russo-Turkish War
1878 Romania's independence was recognized
1916 Romania joined World War II after two years of being neutral
1919 Bukovina was transferred to Romania from Austria
1920 Banat and Transylvania were transferred to Romania from Hungary and Bessarabia from Russia
1937 Romania ranked second in oil production in Europe and seventh in the world
1940s Romania joined Axis Powers in World War II
1944 Coup d'état by King Michael overthrew Ion Antonescu and his regime and Romania joined the Allied in the war
1947 King Michael I was forced to abdicate and leave the country as Romania's people's republic was proclaimed
1948 The state began to nationalize private companies and to collectivize agriculture
1965 Nicolae Ceausescu came to power and started to conduct foreign policy more independently from the Soviet Union
1968 Romania was the only Warsaw Pact member to refuse participating in the Soviet-led invasion of Czechoslovakia
1989 Romanian Revolution in December, the communist regime of Romania was overthrown and Nicolae and Elena Ceausescu were executed
1990 Ion Iliescu became Romania's first freely elected head of state
2004 Romania joined Nato
2007 Romania became a member of the European Union 

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